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‘The Social Europe guide is a biannual publication aimed at providing an interested, but not necessarily specialised audience with a concise overview of specific areas of EU policy in the field of employment, social affairs and inclusion. The fourth volume in the series describes the vivid world of social economy organisations (such as cooperatives, associations, etc) as well as the more recent phenomenon of social entrepreneurship, ie business created to achieve social, rather than financial goals’. More info
‘Anyone interested in measuring entrepreneurship – producers of such statistics or academics and policy makers who use them – will find this book useful, as will anyone concerned about the deteriorating availability of finance for entrepreneurs in these difficult times. There is much talk about entrepreneurial climates and performance; this book provides a sensible, comprehensive framework for measurement, with concrete indicators for culture and capability’. Publication in PDF
‘The European Commission’s Directorate-General Enterprise and Industry has been studying the development of entrepreneurship in EU Member States for over a decade. The series of Eurobarometer surveys on entrepreneurship has endeavoured to compare the situation within the EU by comparing the EU data with data from a range of non-EU countries. This latest edition of the survey covers the 27 EU countries as well as 13 countries from outside the EU and was carried out among 42 000 respondents from different social and demographic groups by TNS Opinion & Social network between 15th June and 8th August 2012′. Results of the Eurobarometer (PDF)
In 2012, women made up only 31% of self-employed European citizens, and only 10% of working women are self-employed. This briefing deals with the following themes: ‘Entrepreneurship in the EU’; ‘the feminine touch’; ‘Gendered obstacles’; ‘Policy recommendations’; ‘Assisting female entrepreneurship’; ‘European Parliament’. Briefing
The effects of the crisis differ across Member States and present different pictures for men and women. This briefing deals with the following themes: ‘The unfolding crisis’; ‘A male-dominated crisis?’; ‘The female face of the crisis’; ‘EU initiatives for gender equality’; ‘Stakeholder views’; and ‘European Parliament’. Briefing
‘European cities are increasingly faced with the challenge of integrating people from very diverse backgrounds. As migrant populations increase, so do the opportunities for new business, job creation and international competitiveness. This report shows that ethnic entrepreneurs, however small their venture, contribute to the economic growth of their local area, often rejuvenate neglected crafts and trades, and participate increasingly in the provision of higher value-added services. They can help to promote stronger trading links with their home countries and foster social cohesion in their host communities. The report examines what city authorities are doing to attract ethnic entrepreneurs into their established business communities, and to facilitate the business environment – from the purely financial to providing training and advice’. Report
‘Empowering women economically and making them central to solutions is a moral imperative. But it also makes good economic sense. A growing body of research shows that enhancing women’s economic participation improves national economies, increases household productivity and living standards, enhances the well-being of children with positive long term impacts and can increase women’s agency and overall empowerment’.
Women in the Workplace 2016 is a comprehensive study of the state of women in corporate America. The study is part of a long-term partnership between LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Company to give companies the information they need to promote female leadership and foster gendere equality in the workplace.
‘In 2010, European Commission indicated in its report that Nordic countries were at a relatively advanced stage of evolution with many strategies in place. However, how is the situation of implementing entrepreneurship education strategy in Nordic countries now? The report aims at presenting the current status of implementing entrepreneurship education strategy in Nordic countries, as well as bringing up a range of good projects and practices for discussion of Nordic collaboration’.
‘In recent years, as the number of female entrepreneurs worldwide is slowly increasing, researchers and policy makers focus more on them. Denmark is one of the countries where female entrepreneurs receive increased attention. The country, which is ranking among the best countries in terms of entrepreneurship, has a great business potential and entrepreneurship conditions. Policy makers have started various initiatives to attract more women to choose entrepreneurship as a career path. However, the number of female entrepreneurs in the country remains relatively small, compared to the male-owned businesses. In this study, six women entrepreneurs, Danes and International, were invited to share their experiences about entrepreneurship.
‘While certain aspects of banks’ behaviour have been interrogated in the wake of the financial crisis, how banks treated and continue to treat women customers is a subject that has received little attention. The findings of this research, point to the need to shine a spotlight on banks’ practices in this area, as it is pointed out that women are indeed being discriminated against in the UK. This report focuses on discrimination in two specific respects – against women entrepreneurs seeking business loans and women home-buyers seeking mortgage loans – and identifies a new category of potentially unlawful behaviour, concerning discrimination against would-be mortgage-holders who are pregnant and/or on maternity leave’.
“Using a large data set for Germany, we show that both the raw and the unexplained gender earnings gap are higher in self-employment than in paid employment. Applying an OaxacaBlinder decomposition, more than a quarter of the difference in monthly self-employment earnings can be traced back to women working fewer hours than men. In contrast variables like family background, working time flexibility and career aspirations do not seem to contribute much to the gender earnings gap, suggesting that self-employed women do not earn less because they are seeking work-family balance rather than profits. Differences in human capital endowments account for another 13 percent of the gap but segregation does not contribute to the gender earnings gap in a robust way”. The study can be found under the following link.
Female entrepreneurship in the European Union: are gender equality policies othering women?, Sando, V. De; Utrecht University, July 2013.
“The study aims to explore the gendered construction of the entrepreneurial discourse in the EU, engaging with post-structural feminist analysis. The purpose is to investigate the practice and process of female entrepreneurship performed by European political actors, involving policy makers, experts and stakeholders across Europe. The EU is trying to tackle the lack of female entrepreneurs through gender equality policies, but they are likely to perpetrate a male-centered entrepreneurial discourse, which questions the roots of the principle of equality, as defined in the Maastricht Treaty and the European Charter of fundamental rights”. This study can be found here.
‘As the population in the EU continues to age, counteracting the resulting demographic forces is becoming increasingly important. Helping older people remain economically active has the potential to have important economic and social benefits, not only for the target group, but for society on the whole. The European Commission and OECD have joined forces to produce a brochure, which emphasizes the importance of a shift in entrepreneurship policy within this demographic, to encourage it to become more active. In this context, it examines a range of different initiatives and schemes that could be implemented to promote business start-ups by older people.’
‘The OECD and European Commission have produced a new policy brief on youth entrepreneurship. It covers the scale of self-employment and entrepreneurship activities undertaken by young people, including by gender, education level, industry sector, country and sub-national geographic areas, as well as the drivers for and barriers to youth entrepreneurship and self-employment. The policy brief also presents policy lessons from evidence on entrepreneurship activities and policy experience’.
‘In 2010 the OECD launched a gender initiative to examine existing barriers to gender equality in education, employment and entrepreneurship (the ‘three Es’) with the aim to improve policies and to promote gender equality in the economy in both OECD and non-OECD countries alike. This report from the initiative was presented at the OECD Ministerial Council Meeting (MCM) held in Paris on 23-24 May 2012. It is designed to inform, share policy experiences and good practices, and help governments promote gender equality in education, employment and entrepreneurship. It looks at the state of play from a gender perspective across all three issues, whether inequalities exist, how and why they have developed, and which obstacles need to be overcome to move towards greater equality. It offers policy advice to governments as to how they can create a more level playing field’.
“Gender differences in entrepreneurial intentions and agentic traits frequently linked to entrepreneurship (locus of control, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, risk-taking propensity, and proactivity) were examined using a sample of Spanish university students, 535 women and 283 men. Self-reported data were collected through a questionnaire consisting of several scales and the results showed gender differences in entrepreneurial intention and entrepreneurial self-efficacy”. The study can be found here.
“This study aims to discuss one of the most significant economic and social developments in the world – the rise of the female entrepreneurship. Women entrepreneurship needs to be studied as a separate field because it generates jobs and economic growth and because this subject has been neglected, particularly in business research. This study addresses the growth in female entrepreneurship in the developed and developing countries, explores primary motivational and other factors that influence female entrepreneurship, reviews the main obstacles facing the female entrepreneur, and finally makes recommendations to policy-makers to encourage and support such activity”. This study can be found here.
This issue of Inform presents: “The importance of women in the global labour force”; “The added value of women entrepreneurs”; “What the ETF and other organisations can do to increase the numbers of women entrepreneurs”; “Policy options for strengthening the entrepreneurial competences of women.” The issue can be found under the following link.
“The report finds that the countries around the Baltic Sea as well as Norway and Iceland are using very different policy instruments and projects in order to increase the number of women entrepreneurs. Few countries have adopted a clear policy to encourage and facilitate women to start their own business or to become more ambitious. The report finds that the conditions for exchange of best practice are perfect, since there is room for improvement through cross-border cooperation”. The report can be found under the following link.
“The GEM Women’s Report 2012 offers an in-depth view of women who start and run businesses around the world through the collaborative work of a consortium of national teams consisting of academic researchers from across the globe. Each national team oversees an annual survey of at least 2,000 working-age adults (ages 18–64). Starting with just 10 developed economies in 1999, the project has grown to involve 99 economies over 14 annual cycles. In 2012 alone, GEM surveyed 198,000 adults in 691 economies. Each year, GEM publishes a global report that details the latest survey results from participating teams around the world. In addition, national teams produce reports covering their particular economies”. You may find the full report by clicking here.
“The Women Entrepreneurial Venture Scope examines and ranks 20 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean according to their positive and negative influences on women entrepreneurs. It also offers insights into the measures that help support women’s business start-ups and contribute to their growth. The index analyses women’s entrepreneurship across five areas: Business Operating Risks, Entrepreneurial Business Environment, Access to Finance, Capacity and Skills, and Social Services.” You can find the full report by clicking here.
The Amway European Entrepreneurship report 2012 provides data on people’s attitudes towards self-employment. It is intended to encourage the public discussion about entrepreneurship and to raise awareness for the important role of entrepreneurship and the key societal target groups in modern economies. The full report can be found under this link.